Avast AV & CCleaner Massive Malware Download: How to Help the End users


Screenshot of CCleaner from Talos Blog

Computers are hard. Ask the average user. They expect technology to serve their needs, not the other way around. Computers are supposed to be instant gratification, entertainment, making life easier, solving problems. They are not supposed to require much more effort than pressing the “on” key and typing. Anything else is our problem – we we were supposed to build security in, right?

We talk increasingly about “the human condition” in tech and security, because more often than not, it is that path of least resistance. Attackers know how we succumb – hence phishing. We opt for free – but you really do only get what you pay for, and buyer beware. Convenience, immediacy, lowest price – these drive the standard of quality in our connected world. It explains the current abysmal state of the IoT. And as we know, we cannot keep doing what we have been doing because – say it with me – it just doesn’t work anymore.

So when things go wrong, which they have been on an almost daily basis it seems, we who are tech reach out to the end users and let them know that they have to do more: remove software, delete files, check for files, run scans. As anyone who has ever worked helpdesk or worked with end users knows, this is not an easy ask. Most people struggle with just setting up their ISP modem/routers. Never mind removing default passwords or enabling controls. People tend to be afraid of technology, because as humans, we are afraid of what we don’t know. So we are afraid of breaking things, just as we are afraid to ask for help. And face it, tech support has earned its reputation for good reason.  People know when they are being made fun of, talked down to. We don’t make it easy for people to ask for help.

It doesn’t help that mega breaches and global ransomware outbreaks have been consistently in the headlines this past year. It’s enough to give anyone breach fatigue. And that’s what brings me to this. The talented team at Cisco Talos have issued a warning in their blog about a massive malware infection being spread by a tool, CCleaner 5.33, that has been shipping with a popular, often free, antivirus product, Avast. This is the statement according to Piriform, who owns CCleaner:

“An unauthorized modification of the CCleaner.exe binary resulted in an insertion of a two-stage backdoor capable of running code received from a remote IP address on affected systems.”

There are excellent technical write ups on this latest event and mine is not one of them. Initially, I saw the threat of securing third parties – we all know the perils of supply chain. But then, as I read through it, I realized I could read through it only after months of immersing myself, by choice, in infosec. Choosing to look up and learn what I did not already know (which is still a lot). The average user – that ain’t happening. They may read some of the articles that are more mainstream, but don’t bank on that either. Increasingly, end users are hitting the bar. Some are defeatist, saying they don’t care anymore, it’s pointless, what can they do anyway. Others believe in the power of the megacorps to protect them, so they follow whatever advice is given, like buying credit monitoring. Because that is easier than having to piece together a solution themselves on something they really know nothing about. And others prefer the head in the sand approach – Hear no evil, see no evil. I kid you not.

Some are lucky enough to have the money to pay a tech to fix the problem. Some have tech friends/family who can fix it for them. Most, however, are cast adrift on a sea of increasing peril, without life preservers. And even if we threw them a lifeline, we can’t expect they would be willing to take it. Trust goes both ways.

Before you make fun of the folks who chose Avast because it was free, here’s how I rationalized it years ago, before I arrived in InfoSec. I knew I needed to do something to secure my computer, and a free AV was better then nothing at all. Plus I could use it. And understand enough to use it, to scan. To pay attention if it alerted me. Maybe I even read a bit more to see that it suggested things I could do to clean up my computer and be safer. So, I would have downloaded CCleaner, which I have seen recommended in other places as a safe and free solution to optimizing my performance. And here’s the thing – I would have expected a known AV product, like Avast, would not be endorsing something harmful. Hence, I could trust CCleaner because I could trust Avast.

certsAnd Avast trusted CCleaner enough to promote and bundle them. To download them. So let’s look at that breakdown of trust. The researchers at Cisco Talos flagged a malicious executable file while doing some beta testing for their new product. That file happened to be the installer file for CCleaner v5.33. Now, that file was being delivered as downloads in good faith by legit CCleaner servers to millions of customers. It was legit because the appropriate digital certification was issued and signed to the main company, Piriform.

Enter the attackers. They had managed to intrude this trust worthy process and include a free, unwelcome gift with download.  This was malware, a malicious payload containing the ability to call back to the attackers command and control server, as well as being equipped with a DGA or Domain Generating Algorithm – definitely not a good thing. Obfuscation is a thing. If you can’t find someone was there, how do you know? And, without evidence or proof, trying to analyze this after the fact is problematic. The good news is there was a short window of release between August 15 til the latest version, 5.34 was issued on September 12. In previous attacks I’ve seen, manipulation of digital certificates is often an indicator that compromise is deep, systemic even, and trust in the signing authority may have been misplaced. In this case, Cisco cites:

 “the fact that the binary was digitally signed using a valid certificate issued to the software developer, it is likely that an external attacker compromised a portion of their development or build environment and leveraged that access to insert malware into the CCleaner build that was released and hosted by the organization. It is also possible that an insider with access to either the development or build environments within the organization intentionally included the malicious code or could have had an account (or similar) compromised which allowed an attacker to include the code”

Looking through the malware, Cisco found clues that the attacker tried to cover their tracks. Once the infection was in place, the program worked to erase its source data and the memory regions it inhabited. With the legit program now installed, the attacker has the ability to do as they wish in the machine they now occupy. Which means they can gather system information on the machine and send it back to their command + control server. With this link established, other malware could be sent to infect the compromised machines. Here is a high level view of what happens, as written by the Talos crew:talos pic2

As for the DGA, if the key C+C server for the malware failed to respond, the program had a failback to generate some other IP addresses using the DGA and dns lookups. Here’s the good news. Talos used the algorithm and found that the domains it generated had not been registered. Moving on it,  they registered them instead and sinkholed them to keep the attackers out. As well, the malicious version of CCleaner had been removed from the download servers.

talos pic3

What is of concern is how many people around the world apparently use CCleaner.  As of today, Piriform is somewhat ambivalent in its claims of the number of users affected. Are they limited to only 32 bit windows machines? If you go back to Aug 15, would almost 4 million users have downloaded the malware?


Talos advises that users need to either rollback to the previous version or install the new one. Which brings me to my earlier point about the human condition:

“according to the CCleaner download page, the free version of CCleaner does not provide automated updates, so this might be a manual process for affected users.”

The team at Talos is seeing a lot of DNS activity around machines trying to connnect with those suspect domains that are no longer available. And the only reason can be those machines are being controlled by malware. Worse, the malware is not being detected using current methods. So far as fixing things goes: if you currently are a Cisco customer then you are covered. As for the rest of us, sigh. We have work to do. Uninstalling will not remove the malware. That is left to you.  If you have a full backup of your system, (and in this age of ransomware you really, really need one)  you can restore from that. Otherwise, I suggest using Malwarebytes.



Learning: Reversing Malware

Have you ever wanted to learn about reversing malware? There is no better way to understand exploits and infections. It’s essential as attacks evolve and we need to understand what’s being leveraged, how and why. It’s fascinating, and yes – you can do this. Dream big! Aim high!

@MalwareUnicorn (Twitter) is one of the best there is at this and she shares her wisdom and knowledge online. I’ll make you a deal – let’s start learning this together. I promise regular progress updates.

Here is her site. Let’s get going!


The ABC’s of APTs: Shamoon

sham35Welcome to the grey zone where politics and cyber meet. APTs or advanced persistent threats, are one of my favourite acronyms (but then you know how I am intrigued by Stuxnet and cartels), and essentially are how nation states get their digital digs at each other. Usually the intention is to get information, because knowledge is power. Cyberespionage can give a competing nation a real competitive advantage in the world economy, among other things. But sometimes, there is a need to control more, and that is where weaponizing code takes on a whole new nasty.

The keyword here is “persistence.”  First, attackers must find their way into the networks of the target. Usually, they employ targeted spear phishing, painstakingly staking out the right victim to receive that loaded email.  The investment of time and money at this point is essential, so as not to tip anyone off. And the emails are crafted so carefully, picking up on points tailored to that recipient so that they will open it, and launch the attachment that will create an entry point for the attacker. There is a reason why phishing is at the heart of so many breaches.

Now, imagine a video game, where you must progressively meet the challenges of each level to go higher. That is the attacker moving through the network, acquiring credentials to gain access to the crown jewels. The strategy is to find someone lower level, then work your way up. Hence, persistence, because this is an investment of both time and patience. Expect the key executives or decision makers to be well-guarded, with access and authorization controls in place. Not the case for someone lower on the food chain. All an attacker needs is to gain access. As proven repeatedly, once in, they can take all the time they need to find what they want. Case in point: the attack on the Ukraine power grid in December 2016.  The attackers were in that system for over nine months, collecting what they needed, notably credentials for the Virtual Private Network, that enabled them to jump the security gap onto the restricted side. As Stuxnet taught us, there is no such thing as air-gapped security.


We know the Russians hacked the US; we know China hacked the US and Canada; and yes, the US has hacked someone too. These are the games nations play. The trick, of course, is not to get caught before you have the prize. And when you do get caught?  Well, as we’ve seen play out, nothing really bad happens. Just expect that your victim will be in your systems. Unless information isn’t the endgame and control is. Then, be prepared for something to go bump in the night.

Shamoon is devastating wiper malware that took out a massive swath of Saudi Aramco when it first debuted in 2012.  Linked to Iran, and an ongoing feud in the region between key players, it was a targeted attack against the oil giant, damaging or destroying 35,000 computers. Sec Def at the time, Leon Panetta, described it as “probably the most destructive cyber attack on a business.”

Wiper malware was used against business targets in  December 2014 destroying the systems in a Vegas casino, The Sands, after owner Sheldon Adelson advocated using nuclear weapons against Iran. The US “publicly cited Iran as the culprit”.   Then Disstrack was used again in December 2015, in the attack that brought Sony to its knees.  These aren’t gangs using cybercrime for monetary gain. These are the equivalent of acts of war, given the level of damage done.

Fast forward to late 2016. Two major attacks happened in Saudi: November 17 taking out systems at the airport and other Saudi government agencies, and then again on November 29. Then, on January 23 there was another attack. The malware used was almost identical to the original Shamoon, aka Disstrack.  Except there were a few key enhancements.  According to Andrew Plato, CEO of Anitian Enterprise Security

 “What is really worrisome about this is it’s just outright destructive. It isn’t really trying to steal anything. It’s the closest things we’re going to get to a cyber bomb”.

The new version, dubbed Shamoon 2, spread through the local network using legitimate counts belonging to users and administrators, with complex passwords likely obtained from an earlier attack. Remember what I said about persistence?  This new version, however went on to attack VDIs, or Virtual Desktops, which previously could have offered some protection because of their ability to load snapshots of systems that were wiped. Now Shamoon had migrated from just Windows-based systems to Linux in the attacks on VDIs.


Now, I don’t want to be alarmist and spread FUD everywhere. Yes, this is serious and destructive. Like Stuxnet, it broke things. And that’s the differentiator. So far, the line hasn’t been crossed where breaking things was deliberately done to harm people. Because as Archer would say: You want cyberwar? Because that’s how you get cyberwar.

While the expectation is that Iran is once again behind the attacks, Symantec has revealed there are multiple parties involved. More than one entity, so collaboration and cooperation.  The report is that an entity known as Greenbug may have assisted in getting the credentials needed for access.  Palo Alto reported on a campaign known as Magic Hound which targeted energy, technology and government with ties or locations in Saudi.  There were links between Magic Hound and two other actors with Iranian ties: Charming Kitten and Rocket Kitten. Finally, putting all this together was the group Timberworm or Cobalt Gypsy.  Per Symantec, Timberworm was behind the January 23 attacks.

Here’s the play by play. First, Timberworm used spear phishing emails with weaponized documents (we warned you about those Office Macros!) to gain initial access into the network. Once there, they used custom malware, along with leveraging existing sysadmin tools to avoid detection, and help them achieve persistent remote access. Quick FYI: custom malware is a hallmark of major organized cybercrime groups or nation state attacks because it costs a lot of time and money to craft, and the stakes are going to be very high.

Apparently Greenbug and Timberworm have been active, penetrating organizations beyond Saudi. Note that Shamoon, however, was only used against the Saudi target. Timberworm is a large operation, as is Greenbug, with targets in a range of areas. We know who they are now, what they can do, and that they have a shared interest. What we don’t know: the endgame. I’m waiting for that other shoe to drop.





Banking on Insecurity

They came for the money, they stayed for the data. There is far more at stake in financial services than dollars and sense. The past twelve months have shown how far attackers are willing and able to go; banks are known for their conservative pace in adopting new strategies, and attackers are literally banking on it.

As the saying goes, “In God we trust”. In banks, maybe not so much.  According to a recent report by Capgemini, one in five bank execs are “highly confident” in their ability to detect a breach, never mind defend themselves against it.  Yet “83% of consumers believe their banks are secure from cyber attack”.  One in four banks report they’ve been attacked, but only 3% of consumers believe their bank has suffered a breach. Never mind the money. How about the data? Survey shows that 71% of banks don’t have a solid security strategy in place, nor do they have adequate data privacy practices. The numbers are not good. Only 40% of banking and insurance companies have automated security intelligence capabilities for proactive threat detection

After following the trail on the SWIFT bank heists last year, I’ve paid close attention to banking malware, threat actors, and points of failure. What worries me is what’s coming as digital payments become the norm, and digital identities take hold in developing nations who lack the infrastructure or regulation to secure or enforce. Given what we already know, what does this recent history of attacks tell us?

Polish Banks
The recent series of targeted malware attacks against Polish banks was identified in January this year, but attackers went after the data, not money. After noticing unusual network activity, like traffic to “exotic” locations and encrypted executables that nobody knew of, and unauthorised files on key machines in the network, several commercial banks confirmed malware infections. Investigations revealed infection stemmed from a tampered JS file from the webserver of the Polish financial sector regulatory body.  This was actually part of a wider campaign that has gone after financial institutions in over 30 countries.  According to researchers from both BAE Systems and Symantec, the malware used in Poland can be linked to similar attacks around the globe, and there are marked similarities to tools used by the cybercrime group Lazarus, although no confirmation has been made.  Targets were led to compromised sites of interest to them, watering holes, which were malicious sites that injected code and directed the targets to a customized exploit kit.  This kit contained exploits against known vulnerabilities in Flash Player and Silverlight. What’s interesting is that the exploits were only activated for certain visitors: those with IP addresses from specific ranges. Per Symantec, “The IP addresses belong to 104 different organizations located in 31 different countries … The vast majority of these organizations are banks, with a small number of telecoms and internet firms on the list.” 15 of these are from the US.  The infection downloaded enables recon on the compromised system. Again, this tool is similar to those used in past by the Lazarus group. Now every major security group has published their opinions and analysis on what was originally all but overlooked as some malware that spread from the regulatory body’s server.

Fileless Malware Attacks
In January of this year, there were reports around the globe of attacks on banks using fileless malware. The malware resided solely in the memory of compromised systems.  This is not signature based malware that can be referenced and detected. According to Kaspersky, 140 enterprises in 40 countries have been hit. And forensics cannot help us:

“ memory forensics is becoming critical to the analysis of malware and its functions. In these particular incidents, the attackers used every conceivable anti-forensic technique; demonstrating how no malware files are needed for the successful exfiltration of data from a network, and how the use of legitimate and open source utilities makes attribution almost impossible.” 

But the infections are hard to identify so that number could well be more.  Further complicating things is the use of legitimate and widely used sysadmin and security tools  like PowerShell, Metasploit and Mimikatz for malware injection. In a range of incidents, the common denominator seems to be embedding PowerShell in the registry to download Meterpreter. From there, the attack is carried out using the native Windows utilities and sysadmin tools. Per Kaspersky:


The new fileless malware hitting banks is Duqu 2.0, which Kaspersky found on it corporate network in 2014, but only after it went undetected for 6 months because it lives almost completely in the memory of the computers. Duqu 2.0 is derived from Stuxnet. The malware renames itself when an infected computer is rebooted so digital forensics has a tough time finding traces. The calling card seems to be the unusual embedding of PowerShell into the registry to download Meterpreter. Duqu 2.0 is derived from Stuxnet. Reports aren’t saying how the malware spreads.

TESCO Bank Attack
In November 2016, Tesco Bank, a British retail bank chain with 7 million customers, warned its customers to watch for suspicious money withdrawals. Unfortunately, when customers who noticed money was missing from their accounts reached out to the bank, many could not get through. Approximately 20,000 accounts were hit. Tesco briefly halted online transactions in response. The attack seemed to stem from a “systemic failure of security around Tesco’s core database”. Recommendations include having controls in place to alert on changes to key files and configurations. As well, file monitoring integrity and Configuration Management Security ensure that if and when changes are made, they are valid and validated.

Take the Money and Run:  COBALT, ATMs and ‘Jackpotting’
There was a distinct rise in ATM attacks over 2016.  The latest siege, Cobalt, covers a wide swath across the UK, Spain, Russia, Romania, the Netherlands, much of Eastern Europe and Malaysia.  According to Group IB researchers, a large number of machines are attacked at once, and Cobalt appears to be linked to cybercrime syndicate Buhtrap.  The malware used causes infected machines to spit out cash in an attacks known as “jackpotting”.  Noteworthy is how this is being described as “the new model of organized crime”.  The FBI issued warnings to US banks following those ATM heists, taking into account the attacks in Taiwan and Thailand, when thieves grabbed over 260,000 pounds from Thailand’s Government savings bank and $2.5 million from Taiwan. The world’s two largest ATM manufacturers, NCR and Diebold Nixdorf, worked to manage the threat.

Lloyd’s Bank Hit by DDoS Attack
In January the venerable Lloyd’s Bank of London was struck by a DDoS attack that lasted two days.  Attackers tried to crash the Lloyd’s site, causing issues for customers and impacting some access to online banking.  The bank did not lose money, nor data, nor was the impact significant.  Law enforcement is investigating.

Attacks on Banks in the SWIFT System
Banks rely on messenger systems to conduct transfers back and forth. In 2016, a series of targeted attacks on banks in the trusted SWIFT messenger system came to light after a massive heist on the Bank of Bangladesh. Apparently the attacks are evolving, and SWIFT has told member bank, in an undisclosed letter from Nov. 2, that “attacks on its systems have only become more sophisticated in their strategies”.  “The threat is very persistent, adaptive and sophisticated – and it is here to stay”.  This is despite the work by regulators globally to toughen bank security measures. And the word is that “a fifth of them are hitting paydirt for the attackers”, per Stephen Gilderdale, head of SWIFT’s Customer Security Programme. Now the hackers exploit tech support software to gain access. Then send victims phony payment instructions via SWIFT network.  SWIFT emphasizes that all those attacks detected “exploited SWIFT interfaces used by its customers” but that the SWIFT communications network itself was not impacted. In light of this, warnings are being issued to small businesses to realize the threat to them is real.  Scams have become more sophisticated and will continue to evolve. 


https://baesystemsai.blogspot.sk/2017/02/lazarus-watering-hole-attacks.html   https://threatpost.com/fileless-memory-based-malware-plagues-140-banks-enterprises/123652/
http://www.welivesecurity.com/2017/02/16/demystifying-targeted-malware-used-polish-banks/?utm_source=organic%20twitter&utm_medium=news&utm_campaign=WLS   http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/banking/finance/banking/indian-banks-are-waking-up-to-a-new-kind-of-cyber-attack/articleshow/56575808.cms

Ransomware: Don’t Get LOCKY’d Out


LOCKY made its debut a week ago, and impacted half a million users around the globe in a day. The numbers have escalated alarmingly since then as this latest crypto-ransomware, developed by the same dark minds behind Dridex banking malware, spreads across platforms and continents.

What YOU Can Do

We’re warning users to beware of phishing emails. Even if it says it is from your bank, they will not send you an email for something requiring your urgent attention with a link or an attachment. The same goes for the CRA or other major financial institutions. MS Word documents masquerade as invoices requiring urgent payments, or bank statements. These will contain malicious macros that launch the malware. Once it gets onto a computer connected to ANY network, it will spread and contaminate rapidly. And any removable devices will also become contaminated, putting others at risk.

If you suspect you’ve been hit, time is crucial. Contact your support people immediately. We’re here for you. And shut your computer down. You need to cut yourself off from the network immediately. Expect that you will not be using your computer for some time and that you may need to shutdown the network. Given that the encryption is so powerful, the only recourse victims have is to restore from an untainted backup. Or face paying the ransom with no guarantees.


As detailed by researchers at Naked Security for Sophos, LOCKY encrypts a wide range of file types. These include videos, images, PDFs, program source code, and Office files. As well as files in any directory on any mounted drive that the infected computer can access. This is important because this will also include removable drives plugged in at the time or network shares that are accessible like servers and other people’s computers. That is a lot of potential damage. Extend that to a case where an infected user is connected to the network using administrator access and controls; the damage could be widespread. Locky will also encrypt Bitcoin wallet files it finds, thereby stealing any bitcoin that could have paid ransom.
Where’s My Shadow Copy Backup?

But then LOCKY takes things further by removing any Volume Snapshot Service (VSS) files or “shadow copies.” If you use Windows, you know those are the current of live backups Windows takes of work in progress – we all rely on those for when we forget to save, or the system crashes. Unfortunately, for some users these shadow copies have simply become their backup system.

Steps to Stay Safer

  • Make regular backups and keep one off-site
  • Do not enable macros in emails and attachments
  • Be suspicious of attachments from unknown/untrusted sources
  • Do not stay signed on with administrator privileges any longer than you need
  • Keep your security patches up to date
  • Have a DRP with a business continuity plan in place to minimize downtime


Malware Primer: Browser Hijackers & Adware & Spyware. Oh My!

Welcome back for another installment in our series on Malware 101. This time, we’ll get delve into the devious realm of browser hijackers and adware.


Not all surprises are nice. Like when you type in one destination online, and find yourself on another site you really don’t want. And try as you might, you just keep landing back at that site. Sorry but you’ve just been hijacked by your browser. More accurately, by the hacker who has used malware to take control of your browser, and your surfing.

Browser hijacks are performed by malicious software that redirects your browser – Exploer, Google, Firefox, Safari – to a specific site.  This site can then be used to download malware onto your computer, without you realizing it. It’s known as a “drive-by download”, quick and dirty.

It gets worse. You know those bundled offers you get, or combos, whether you want them or not? Well, you’ve not only been hijacked, but you have likely been loaded up with a bunch of malware to take back. Your screen will soon fill with annoying pop-ups; your computer will seem sluggish; strange things will happen to your files. A lot of this is adware, often bundled with browser hijackers. And all courtesy of something you clicked on.


While the adware is annoying, the spyware it carries is more malicious. This stuff hides on your computer, where it tracks and monitors everything you do. Yes that email, tweet, ridiculous comment, all have been recorded and sent elsewhere. Worse, your personal details, banking information and sign on credentials have also been captured for sale and use by somebody you really don’t want to know.

Think of this stuff as tech VD, because cleaning up a nasty infestation reveals it to be a gift that keeps on giving. It’s hard to detect initially. Once you do catch on, the malware has proliferated and spread through your computer. You’ll likely need professional assistance to do a really good clean up job. Unless you have the patience and expertise to follow all the steps and use several different programs to unearth and remove all the malicious files.  It is doable, but you need to be diligent because you need to find and remove all of it. Otherwise, you’ll get reinfected.

Remember – You Own Your Own Security.  Take charge!

Superfish and Lenovo: One Big Fish Fry

“Superfish” by @EddieTheYeti

There’s a nasty little game afoot where new laptops come with undesirable extras. I’m talking about “crapware” – all those annoying little programs and invitations to sign up and buy that suddenly fill your screen moments after you first boot up.  That’s not the way anyone deserves to experience those heady first moments with a major new purchase. And yet, it’s exactly what happens with nearly all new laptops and pcs.

If you ask, you’re told that it’s been in practice by big companies for a while; that it’s the way business is done; that it’s nothing to worry about.  That doesn’t make it right.  And as of today, that doesn’t make it safe.

lenovolaptopIt has been discovered that the plethora of advertising extras pre-installed on Lenovo laptops contains a hidden danger.  A piece of adware, known as “Superfish Visual Discovery”, actually conducts a type of attack known as “MiTM” or Man-in-the-Middle, where it messes with that lovely new laptop’s configuration, and actually compromises a key security component. And no, that is not supposed to happen.  Which is why I think it’s time to speak up and speak out about this practice.

Plenty of top-drawer securitytech experts are currently dissecting and revealing the ugly truth about “Superfish”.  Simply put by Marc Rogers on Marc’s Security Ramblings,:

 badcert Lenovo is installing adware that uses a “man-in-the-middle” attack to break secure connections on affected laptops in order to access sensitive data and inject advertising. As if that wasn’t bad enough they installed a weak certificate into the system in a way that means affected users cannot trust any secure connections they make – TO ANY SITE.

Rik Ferguson offers this explanation on CounterMeasures:

 Superfish also installs its own self-signed Root Certificate Authority… Superfish can generate any certificate it wants, which will be trusted by your browser as entirely legitimate, allowing it to impersonate any destination on the internet. These sites are normally protected by strong encryption for your security

twittererRob Graham on Errata Security described how he was able to “intercept the encrypted communications of SuperFish’s victims (people with Lenovo laptops)”. On Twitter, he challenged the supposition by Peter Hortensius, CTO of Lenovo, that the problem was “theoretical” by saying how he had tested and proved otherwise.  And Steve Ragan on Salted Hash Security News hits the nail on the head when he states:

Even if the user removes the Superfish software, the certificate remains trusted and installed on the system. As for the opt-in requirement, most users agree to everything when configuring a new system, assuming they even notice the Superfish TOS to begin with.

What really bothers me is that most users don’t have the technical skillsets to understand what is actually happening, let alone to diagnose and disinfect.  From my years of experience working with end users, cleaning up this kind of mess definitely  falls outside reasonable expectations of what we should ask most people to do. Helping folks overcome their fear of technology is always challenging.  Most people would just like the problem to go away. Or for someone else to fix it.  There is a point to which you can lead users, but then they balk.certs

My team and I are all about simplifying technology for users. And honestly, if you can teach someone the easy ways to do things right, like security, then it’s like teaching that proverbial man to fish: they’ll be fine for the rest of their lives. But there is nothing simple about cleaning up malware, spyware, adware and the technical mess they inflict on devices.  Nobody who really cares about their customers should be asking them to start prodding around in program or registry files even if the customer is technically qualified.  Because confusion happens and mistakes can be made.

It’s really great to hear the outcry against what’s been going, and to put the issue squarely in front of major manufacturers. Time for certain parties to take a good look in the mirror: How can you proclaim your commitment to improving security when you’re actually contributing to a key source of problems? I love this statement by Marc Rogers on Marc’s Security Ramblings :

We trust our hardware manufacturers to build products that are secure. In this current climate of rising cybercrime, if you can’t trust your hardware manufacturer you are in a very difficult position

That said, what can you do about it? First and foremost, you need to get that junk off your device.  I’m happy to report that some terrific folks have been addressing that and there are some good suggestions on how to detect and remove.  For those inclined to do take the task on, read the steps through carefully a couple of times to make sure it’s clear before you undertake anything.  I can recommend this piece by PC World.  As well, I found this piece by ZDNet a little more detailed and perhaps easier to follow.

Crapware serves no purpose other than garnering profit.  Lenovo has a PR nightmare ahead, and they have a lot to answer for. While they claim to have halted shipping it back in January, that does nothing about what’s already out there.  Hopefully this serves notice to other distributors about cleaning up their acts so they don’t get caught up in the same net with “Superfish”.   Because the only real victims in this fish fry are the end-users.

NOTE: The awesome pic up at the top is by talented InfoSec member and artist @EddieTheYeti

My Top 10 List: So What Did We Learn in 2014


There is no question that 2014 has been a most eventful year for InfoSec – and that’s not necessarily a good thing.  Data breaches, malware attacks, compromised Point-of-Sales systems, more data breaches. And of course – the Sony hack. A lot of painful lessons have been learned, many at high cost. So as the year draws to a close, let me present my Top 10 List of what I hope we learned from this year of events we wish we could forget.

1. PATCH IT. Patch it good! System software patches are an integral part of keeping your business, and yourself, safe.  Windows, Linux, Adobe, Oracle to name a few, all offer regular patches to cover those vulnerabilities that leave them exposed to hackers looking for a way in. Ideally, you should have a regular ie monthly schedule where patches are checked and updated.  Another thing to remember: test patches before you apply them. Microsoft has had two terrible months in a row issuing then recalling bad patches, but not before inflicting some major headaches on those who already applied them.   http://www.darkreading.com/application-security/time-to-rethink-patching-strategies/a/d-id/1318256?_mc=RSS_DR_EDT&utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter

B5fDUybIUAMF2IG2. THINK before you click that link.  Phishing and malvertising have reached prolific levels, and are designed so well it’s easy for everyone to fall for the bait. The onus is on us to be certain we know and trust the sender before we open attachments or click on links. Visiting popular websites or social media hopping is an open invitation to a nasty case of malware because many of these destinations have now become choice phishing holes. Don’t get lured in.   http://www.esecurityplanet.com/malware/dridex-and-email-a-nasty-social-engineering-team.html

3. Pass on that Password. This is your first and your best defence to secure anything of value.  Here is how to do it right. Ideally a length of 16 characters, with a mix of upper and lower cases, including numbers and special characters. Oh – and take a tip from Sony. Don’t file under “Passwords”. http://www.wired.com/2014/09/dont-get-hacked/?linkId=9521469

4. AntiVirus Protection. There are a range of options, and many good SOHO programs are even free, though I would strongly encourage paying more to invest in additional protection against cyber threats.  And yes – you definitely need to have this on your phone & tablet. Mobile devices are targets of choice. Given how much of our lives we keep on our phones, why would you put that at risk? Finally, don’t rely on out-dated or lapsed programs. In the constantly evolving world of malware and viruses, yesterday’s solutions won’t cut it. Always keep your AV updated.hacking-sony

5. Breach Protocol 101. If you get breached, handle the situation correctly and professionally. Your customers deserve the decency of being informed as soon as possible to protect themselves and take appropriate action. As in the case of Home Depot, don’t make customers wait for the bad news. Because you can’t put a price on trust and reputation. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/international-business/us-business/home-depot-shares-drop-after-chain-investigates-data-breach/article20308768/?cmpid=rss1&click=sf_rob

6. Secure your SOHO tech. Especially routers. Update, upgrade.

7. WiFI Hotspots: Use with extreme caution! In this holiday season of travel and shopping, convenience may be king but letting your guard down isn’t worth it. Secure your tech first – ‘Free’ comes with a price  http://www.onguardonline.gov/articles/0014-tips-using-public-wi-fi-networks

8. Things aren’t so fantastic when you pay in plastic. This year has proven repeatedly that credit cards are not secure. But given that so much our retail and online world run on plastic, what can you do to stay safe? For starters, Always Check Your Statements. Be in charge of your accounts and know everything coming or going. Secondly, cover the keypad when you enter a PIN anywhere.  Because there really are “eyes in the skies” that are waiting for you to enter the magic number.

malware29. You get what you paid for. When you buy pirated software and 3rd party apps, you often get a free gift-with-purchase, but trust me, it’s one you don’t want. Malware, browser hijackers etc. It’s a headache to huntdown and then remove these nuisance products. You’re better off paying for the real deal.  http://www.scmagazine.com/pirated-joomla-wordpress-drupal-themes-and-plugins-contain-cryptophp-backdoor/article/385552/

10. Best for Last. HAVE A PLAN. When it happens – and it will – have a real Disaster Recovery/Business Continuity plan in place.  According to exper Dejan Kosutic, “It is the combination of people and technology that keeps a business running, not computers only, and this is exactly why the concept of business continuity has prevailed in the last couple of years.” According to CISCO, “60% of Canadian businesses either don’t have a security strategy in place, or don’t know if their current one accounts sufficiently for change and evolution to effectively meet threats.” http://www.itworldcanada.com/article/majority-of-canadian-firms-not-prepared-for-cyber-threats-cisco/100226

And on that cheery note, let me wish you all a safe and successful 2015!

What We Should Learn from Sony’s Pain

hacking-sonyIt is THE biggest news story. Period. And it will be a story that will live on in the telling because it wasn’t just how it happened, it was why.  The hacker attack two weeks ago on Sony was an unprecedented take-down of a global corporate giant by the Guardians of Peace (GOP), a group of cyber-terrorists operating from a small country across the globe.

By now, we all have heard the allegations against North Korea as being the power behind the hackers. North Korea is highly volatile, an unpredictable player in the current global theatre. That means their actions are more threatening. While there is no definitive proof, the code was written in Korean. Email messages have been sent from the GOP, a hacker group based in North (not South) Korea, demanding Sony take down the film ‘The Interview’ about assassinating leader Kim Jong Un. And then there’s the fact that in North Korea, a country known for austerity and deprivation, hackers are state-sponsored and treated as an elite group.


They clearly have no problems developing a very malicious form of malware that disabled or destroyed equipment. This type of malware may have been used before. “Shamoon” as it was known then hit 30000 computers in 2012 in an attack against the oil company Saudi Aramco, and then again in an attack against South Korea in 2013. Moreover, they were able access and operate within Sony’s systems without detection for a considerable length of time.  Sony is a private corporation, but what if this had been done to a major power supplier, water regulator, or another entity considered part of the critical infrastructure. Cybercrime becomes cyber-terrorism.

The economic costs to Sony will be staggering in terms of loss: equipment, intellectual sonypictureshack-640x1136property, confidential and personal data. Never mind the decimation of employee morale and company reputation. The hackers have been contacting families at Sony, telling them they must take their side or else. The GOP got their timing right, striking just before the Christmas release peak season, and they have brought Sony to its knees.

So what do we take away from this? Back in June, North Korea promised to “mercilessly destroy” anyone associated with the film. Did Sony not see this coming? Whatever they suspected, no provisions appear to have been made. Now, it’s damage control. And here’s the first lesson going forward for us all – as details unfold, they further expose the open wound and that can be more painful than the attack itself. In Sony’s case, it’s been revealed that they kept corporate passwords in a file called ‘Passwords’. Yes, I know. While that in itself didn’t facilitate the attack, it implies that Sony was careless, inviting further unwanted speculation.
password-hackedAnd here is the second hard lesson: regardless of how good a defense companies put up against outside hacks, they’re only as good as their weakest link in the security chain which more often than not is human error. In Sony’s case, that meant the problem could have come from within, as simple as someone unwittingly opening those carefully constructed security doors to let the attackers in. For all that companies train and advise their staff, they cannot control their every move or decision. Malware has become an art form in deception, reflecting the spectrum of human weakness.

My hard look at the bottom line: Sony didn’t know how the GOP would strike, but they knew they were at risk, and who the threat was. If this attack could be attributed to state-sponsored North Korean hackers, then current concerns being expressed for the safety of our critical infrastructure need more than words and firewalls. The onus was on Sony to secure their assets, ensuring what measures they had in place were effective. If due diligence is where we can all fall short, we need to close that door or risk more events like this.


A Nasty Case of Krab Web

Computer security concept in word tag cloud on white background

It can happen to anyone. Suddenly, your computer screen is an explosion of pop-ups. You think you’ve clicked close only to have another pop-up take its place.  And then they start opening something you never agreed to. Frantically, you try to shut things down only to discover your cursor has a mind of its own. You try to Google what to do, and keep going to a site you’ve never heard of and don’t want. Welcome to the nightmare of a malware infestation.



I just spent some quality time cleaning a nasty case of Krab Web malware off a laptop. The user had no idea what the item she downloaded would come bundled with. So, let that be my first helpful lesson to you.  Unless you download directly from the source, you are getting your downloads from third party distributor. The names are common, including biggies like CNET and Softonic.  It isn’t that you can’t trust them.  It’s that even they can’t trust what’s going into the mix.  Your best bet is to forego the default installation choice and choose “custom”.  Because when you just click and agree, a couple pages will zoom past. You may think you agreed to another toolbar but you just signed on the dotted line for a dozen – no, I am so not kidding – a dozen or more annoying and even malicious programs that will take you where you do not want to go.  By this, I mean sites where they are phishing for you and downloadable remote access bogeys lurk. But that is a whole separate posting of pain for another day.

STEP 1: Identify and Destroy

step1Let’s say you are on Windows. Open the Control Panel. Then, select Program and Uninstall.  Try to bear with all the pop-up boxes and not click anything.  Once the list of programs appears, click on the Date column to bring up items most recently added. You should see a list of at least 12 or so from when you did your download.  Some will say “Optimizer”, some will say “Protection”, some will say “Best deals”.  They are all bogus.  You want NONE of them. Start by selecting each one and clicking Uninstall.  You can agree to using the program’s own uninstaller remove it. That’s normal. And the best way to get rid of them.  Here’s what I tossed in the trash:

  • Remote Desktop Access VuuPC\
  • PepperZip
  • Optimizer Pro
  • StormWatch
  • Search Protection
  • My PC Backup
  • Surfkeepit
  • eDeals
  • SPT System Updater Service
  • Word Prozer
  • HQ ProVideo
  • Fast Player

Yes, they may sound legit.  But they all had today’s date stamp, and some of them were particularly nasty malware/adware.  As the song says “Don’t Get Fooled Again!”

STEP 2: Remove Adware using ADWCleaner

adwYou may be able to access your browser at this point. If you can, go to this site: ADWCLEANER DOWNLOAD LINK to download an effective Adware cleaner.

Follow the instructions and install. Click on the “Scan” button and then click “Clean”.  You’ll have to reboot.


STEP 3: Remove program files with MalwareBytes

malbytesNow, you  need a program to go after the virus, Krab in this case. Download  MALWAREBYTES ANTI-MALWARE. Follow the prompts and install the free version.



 If prompted, click the green “Fix now” box to start the scan.

malbyte2You may be prompted to upload updates. Click agree.   The program will scan, you can watch the progress, and when it’s done you’ll be notified.  The dangerous files will be quarantined, and expect to be asked to reboot. Say yes.


STEP 4: Clean your Browsers

google1You will probably notice a delightful lack of pop-ups this time. But you’re not in the clear yet. You need to clean your browsers now.  Follow these steps as outlined.

If you use Internet Explorer, click on the right corner gear icon for Settings. From the drop down box, click Internet Options.




In the next box, click on the “Advanced” tab. Click on the “Reset” button. In the next box, select “Delete Personal Settings” and click “Reset”. When Explorer is finished, click close.






googleFor Google Chrome, click this symbol at the top right: symbol. Then, click on “Tools” and then “Extensions”.




In the Extensions tab, you’ll see Krab Web and other items, some which you don’t recognize. Click on the trash can icon beside those you want to remove. If you didn’t install it, delete it. extensions


STEP 5: Check the Spread

A note of caution: Malware spreads with physical contact so you need to check any other devices you’ve connected to your computer, like USB or flash drives, tablets, or even your phone.  Run a scan using your anti-virus and Malware Bytes.Trust me – you’ll be glad you did. Now you’re clean and protected. Surf safe!

** A big thank you to MalwareTips.com and their helpful site